Product description:A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that helps catalyze in the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand. DNA polymerases are best-known for their feedback role in DNA replication, in which the polymerase "reads" an intact DNA strand as a template and uses it to synthesize the new strand. This process copies a piece of DNA. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand and identical to the template's original partner strand. DNA polymerases use magnesium ions as cofactors. Human DNA polymerases are 900-1000 amino acids long.
Function:DNA polymerase with proofreading abilityDNA polymerase can add free nucleotides to only the 3' end of the newly-forming strand. This results in elongation of the new strand in a 5'-3' direction. No known DNA polymerase is able to begin a new chain (de novo). DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide onto only a preexisting 3'-OH group, and, therefore, needs a primer at which it can add the first nucleotide. Primers consist of RNA and/or DNA bases. In DNA replication, the first two bases are always RNA, and are synthesized by another enzyme called primase. An enzyme known as a helicase is required to unwind DNA from a double-strand structure to a single-strand structure to facilitate replication of each strand consistent with the semiconservative model of DNA replication.
DNA polymerase families:Based on sequence homology, DNA polymerases can be further subdivided into seven different families: A, B, C, D, X, Y, and RT.
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