Product description:Superoxide dismutases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As such, they are an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. One of the exceedingly rare exceptions is Lactobacillus plantarum and related lactobacilli, which use a different mechanism.
Types:Generally, SOD enzymes were previously thought to be several metalloproteins with unknown function (for example, CuZnSOD was known as erythrocuprein). Several common forms of SOD exist: they are proteins cofactored with copper and zinc, or manganese, iron, or nickel.
Applicaiton:SOD is used in cosmetic products to reduce free radical damage to skin;Mutations in the first SOD enzyme (SOD1) can cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a form of motor neuron disease);SOD outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity;Human white blood cells generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen species to kill bacteria. During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves from being killed;In higher plants, superoxide dismutase enzymes (SODs) act as antioxidants and protect cellular components from being oxidized by reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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